Monday, May 25, 2015

Birdlore: Northern Mockingbird: The Best Singer of Them All


On a warm spring afternoon, you may find yourself relaxing on the porch or listening to the chitter- chatter of songbirds bobbing and weaving through the yard.  Listening, you hear the song of what seems like a dozen different bird species singing.  You decide to glance about to locate the gathering chorus, but all those songbirds are nowhere to be seen.

Except for a single, slender-bodied, grey songbird perched boldly high up in a bush, bursting proudly with song.

A Northern Mockingbird. in its typically subdued colors (photo: wikipedia)
 The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is renowned for its ability to mimic the songs of other songbirds, cats, dogs, frogs, and even human-made objects.  Their songs are made of a long series of phrases, usually repeated several times, and lasting upwards of half a minute.  The mockingbird, male and female, sings continuously throughout the day and even into the night.  Unmated males will sing longer and louder than mated males in the daytime.  A mockingbird will continue to add new songs and sounds to its repertoire throughout its lifespan.

The Mayans tell a story of how a young mockingbird named, X-chol-col-chek, was poor and could only dress in shabby feathers.  However, X-chol-col-chek had been blessed with a beautiful voice since the day she hatched, but couldn’t afford singing lessons. 

X-chol-col-chek found work with a rich cardinal family, when a famous singing professor, a blackbird, arrived to the Maya land one season.  The father cardinal asked the blackbird to teach his lazy daughter, Col-pol-che, to become a skilled singer.

Col-pol-che and the blackbird would head off into a quiet part of the forest for many weeks for lessons and X-col would follow in secret to watch.  However, over time, the blackbird came to realize that Col-pol-che had neither the skill nor the motivation to become a singer.  Afraid to tell the cardinal father of his daughter’s progress after much time and accepting a great deal of money, the blackbird simply flew away to forget the matter.

All the while, X-col-col-chek practiced the lessons she had watched, until one day Col-pol-che stumbled upon her practice in surprise.  At the same time, the proud father cardinal arranged for his daughter to perform before all their friends and family.  Lazy Col-pol-che was terrified and too afraid to tell her father she couldn’t sing. Instead, she turned to X-chol-col-chek for help.

The two birds recruited a woodpecker to drill a hole in the tree just below where Col-pol-che would perch for her concert.  Col-pol-che would pretend to sing, while X-chol-col-chek hid in the hole and provided the real voice. 

The time of the concert had finally arrived.  All the nobles, artists, singers, and musicians had gathered while Col-pol-che rose to her perch.  Col-pol-che opened her beak and the most enchanting voice to ever be heard in the Maya land spread throughout the whole forest.    The audience flapped and praised the beautiful voice, however, the father cardinal was not applauding.

He had seen X-chol-col-chek climb into the hole shortly before the concert.  When the audience finally settled down, the father cardinal joined his daughter on the perch and demanded silence.  Leaning towards the hole, he called the little mockingbird out.

Shaking with fright, the small, gray mockingbird came out, only to have the father cardinal gently guide her to the perch with him and his daughter.  Explaining to the audience that his daughter had tricked them and himself, he explained that it was really, “this shy little ‘nightingale’ singing the whole time.”

In a great roar of excitement, the audience cried for X-chol-col-chek to sing again.  Feeling more confident, the mockingbird sang with a full spirit and won the heart of every bird.  From then on, her children and her children’s children would inherit her lovely voice, but the cardinals never learned how to sing as well.

The Mayan legend teaches that we should use the abilities we are born with, to be confident and bold in ourselves, and to never stop pursuing our dreams.

You may see one of these amazing singers at one of the WBS feeders (photo: Gay Schroer)

The next time you visit the World Bird Sanctuary keep your ears tuned for the exuberant song of the Mockingbird.  You may see one at one of our feeders--or--you may have one of these joyful little singers in your own yard.  Just take the time to listen.


Submitted by Jessica Bunke, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist/Trainer


Saturday, May 23, 2015

So You Want To Work With Animals


Working with animals is very rewarding work.  As a naturalist at the World Bird Sanctuary, I enjoy working with our critters every day.  But many people get the idea that it’s all cuddles and fun!  No matter if you want to become a veterinarian, wildlife rehabilitator, naturalist, or biologist, if you work with animals, you will be doing a lot of dirty work.

All animals poop.  It is a fact of life.  And that poop doesn’t magically disappear!  At WBS, we have to clean bird poop several times a day.  In fact, birds do not have a bladder, which helps them to stay light since they don’t have to carry around the weight of their waste.  This means that they go to the bathroom A LOT!  Whether you work with birds, reptiles, or mammals, you can be sure that cleaning up animal poop will be a big part of your job.  Clean enclosures make for happy, healthy animal residents.

Wedge-tailed eagle Duncan enjoying a meal of rabbit. (photo: Paige Davis)

Another big part of animal jobs is preparing food.  At WBS, we have more than 250 animals to feed every day!  Most of our animals are birds of prey, which are carnivorous.  We feed our birds a natural diet consisting of things such as rats, mice, rabbit, fish, etc.  All of these food items need preparation on a daily basis.  It can be messy work gutting and prepping hundreds of food items each week!  If you want to work with animals, you will very likely have to prepare diets for the critters you care for.  It is all worth it when one sees the animals enjoying a good meal.

All of our enclosures need to be maintained...from chicken coops to Condor enclosures,,, 

Another part of the job is maintaining animal enclosures.  At WBS, we have to do major maintenance days twice a year, in addition to the daily maintenance.  It is important for the safety of the animals that their enclosures are monitored and kept in good condition.  With the change of seasons, we have to make adjustments to our enclosures to keep the animals comfortable as the weather transitions.  It can be hard work, consisting of climbing, using power tools, and getting muddy.  But the safety of our animal residents is our top priority.

...including the behind the scenes enclosures which the public rarely sees,,,and, alas, none of them clean themselves (photos: Gay Schroer)


On a different note, some animal related jobs do not allow “cuddling”.  If you work in a wildlife rehab for example, the animals are to be kept as wild as possible to give them a good chance of being returned to nature.  Cuddling is prohibited.  At WBS we do not even pet our birds.  Not only are these wild animals that would not appreciate being touched, but also the oils in human skin can cause damage to birds’ feathers.  It may seem tempting to try and pet animals as cute as owls, but they are much happier and healthier getting love through your hard work caring for them.

Even though a big part of working with animals is dirty work, it is definitely worth it.  I wouldn’t give up the opportunity to work with such amazing animals for anything in the world.  But it is important to know just what you are getting into.  If you love animals, and don’t mind getting down and dirty, a career in the animal field may be right for you!  One way to find out is to gain experience through volunteering and interning.  WBS offers unique opportunities to gain hands on experience in the wildlife field.
To find out more, Click Here


Submitted by Paige Davis, World Bird Sanctary Naturalist

Thursday, May 21, 2015

The Red-tailed Hawk

The most common hawk in North America is probably the Red-tailed Hawk.
Marz, the Red-tailed Hawk, watching vigilantly for his cue to fly to his trainer at Stone Zoo (photo Teri Graves)

They are commonly found sitting on fence posts near fields or soaring in the sky with their broad, and rounded wings.  They are typically brown above and pale below in color with that very well-known red tail.  Juveniles have a brown banded tail.  There are also multiple morphs or variations.  The dark-morph birds are chocolate brown and rufous-morph birds are reddish-brown above and dark below.
Nelson, a Krider's Red-tailed Hawk, is a WBS resident bird (photo: Gay Schroer)

There is also a color variation of the Red-tailed Hawk called "Krider's" that is pale with a whitish head, streaked belly, and a pinkish tail.  Harlan's variation of the Red-tailed Hawk is very dark with marbled white, brown and grey in the tail.  These last two morphs are more commonly found in the western United States.

Red-tailed Hawks prefer open country where they can soar or perch on high objects as they search for prey, but they are found in every habitat in the United States, including deserts and woodlands.  When flying, they use thermal updrafts to climb, maintain altitude, and circle the sky.  Often times the Red-shouldered Hawk is mistaken for the Red-tailed Hawk.  They have a similar appearance when in flight.
Flip, a Red-shouldered Hawk.  In flight this species is often mistaken for a Red-tailed Hawk (photo: Gay Schroer)

Red-tailed Hawks are typically a solitary species, but they will share in the hunt with their mate or offspring.  One may keep an eye on their prey while the other makes the attack.  Their diet consists of small mammals such as mice, rabbits, and squirrels, as well as snakes and even other birds.  Like most birds of prey, they will also feed on carrion.
Marz the Red-tailed Hawk at Grant's Farm (photo: W. Leigh French)

The World Bird Sanctuary has several resident Red-tailed Hawks, and even a Krider's Hawk.  As with all of our resident animals, they are available for adoption in our Adopt A Bird program.  To see a gallery of some of our hawks, Click Here.  If you don't see the bird you would like to adopt in our photo gallery--don't despair.  Just call 636-861-3225 and ask for Marion.

Submitted by W. Leigh French, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Rio the Green-winged Macaw


Green-winged Macaws are also known as Red and Green Macaws.  Covered in red feathers with blues and greens on the tail and wings, they are the second largest parrot species in the world, only behind the Hyacinth Macaw. 
Rio, WBS's resident Green-winged Macaw (photo: Gay Schroer)

These beautiful birds have an average length of about 2.5 feet, and a wingspan of over three feet!  Even though they are so large, they only weigh about 3 pounds.  In fact, most birds are relatively light.  This is because the largest of birds' bones have a honeycomb structure instead of being solid like mammal bones.  Also, they don't have heavy jaws and teeth.   


Just because their beaks are lightweight they should not be underestimated. Green-winged Macaws have roughly two-thousand pounds of crushing force with their beaks.  This allows them to break open the toughest nuts and shells.  However, if for some reason this parrot couldn't break open a nut, they have what is called a rasping edge on the inside and end of their upper beak.  This means they could file away at the shell to make it easier to break apart.  Instead they have lightweight beaks.

Because their feet are xygodactal, macaws are very adept at picking up items with their feet (photo: Mike Cerutti)

Here at World Bird Sanctuary we have one of these amazing birds.  His name is Rio, and I honestly do not know if he likes dancing in the sand (a pun on the song “Rio,” by Duran Duran).  Rio has xygodactal feet, meaning that on each foot the outer 2 toes face backwards along with back toe, and the two inner toes face forwards.  This makes picking up fruits and nuts very easy.  Birds of prey like hawks and eagles have to reach down with their heads to their feet to eat food, but parrots like Rio can bring that food all the way up to their mouth with the foot. 

Apart from having gorgeous feathers, a very powerful beak, and awesome feet, Rio (like many other parrots) can even mimic words!  He is known for quietly saying “Hello?” and screaming “Hi Rio!”  at his favorite trainers.  Rio is only eighteen years old, which might seem like a lot, but not for a parrot.  Green-winged Macaws can live to be 60 to 80 years old!


During the summer months, Rio spends his time at various zoos across the United States as part of World Bird Sanctuary’s bird shows.  There he flies over peoples' heads in a seemingly spectacular attempt to wow audiences.  In the winter he likes to eat bananas and play games with his trainers.  One of his favorites is to pick up aluminum cans, and then put them into a recycling bin. 

Even though recycling helps us save money at World Bird Sanctuary, we still need your help.  For just $150 you can adopt Rio through our Adopt-A-Bird program   That tax deductible donation will go directly toward helping us feed and care for our beloved Rio for 1 year.

Submitted by Mike Cerutti, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist/Trainer

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Babies Are Here!


If you’ve been watching our Falcon Cam, you know that the Peregrine Falcon pair at the Ameren MO Sioux Energy Center have been sitting on four eggs.

As of Saturday the babies had begun to pip their eggshells, and by Sunday morning there were four babies.  If you watch the Falcon Cam you may see momma sitting over her clutch to keep them warm, and occasionally you will see one or more babies peek out from beneath her feathers only to be tucked back in by mom.


2014 Photo of parent bird feeding babies (photo: WBS website)

If you’re really lucky you may just catch them when one of the parents returns to the nest with a pigeon or starling and feeds them.  At this time you will see a big ball of fuzz with anywhere from one to four heads ready and waiting for a meal. 

Once the babies have been fed the parent will fly off with the remaining carcass, either to finish off any remaining morsels or to dispose of the carcass somewhere other than the nest.  Shortly after that the parent will return to the nest and gather the babies to be tucked safely under the parent’s warm body.

The Falcon Cam is a cooperative effort between The World Bird Sanctuary, Ameren Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation.

WARNING!!  FALCON WATCHING CAN BE ADDICTIVE!

 
Submitted by Gay Schroer, World Bird Sanctuary Volunteer/Photographer

Friday, May 15, 2015

Birds On The Line: Dorothy


One of my favorite birds on the World Bird Sanctuary exhibit line is Dorothy, the Andean Condor.  I have had the pleasure to watch this amazing bird grow from a chick to a young adult. 


Closeup of Dorothy (photo: Cathy Spahn) 
Every year (with each molt) her colors change as her feathers transform into those of an adult condor.  I remember seeing her for the first time in the summer of 2006 when she was with her parents in our behind the scenes Condor enclosure; she was this little brown fuzz ball.  It is now 9 years later and she is almost a fully feathered adult.


This little fuzzball is baby Dorothy napping (photo: Cathy Spahn)

The Andean Condor, Vultur gryphus, lives in the mountainous regions of South America.  The Andean Condor is one of the largest flying birds in the world.  They tip the scale at 20 t 25 lbs, are up to 4 ft tall, and have a wingspan up to 10 ft.  Adult Andean Condors are mostly black with a fluffy white ruff of feathers around their neck and white patches along their wings.  They also have grayish red heads, the adult females have red eyes, and the males have a fleshy lump on the front of their heads called a caruncle. 

The Andean Condor lays its egg in a cave or rocky area.  They lay only one egg every other year.  The Andean condor was placed on the Endangered Species List in 1973.  They have been the victims of over-hunting, killed because farmers thought condors were killing livestock.  In fact, as with all vultures and their kin, condors feed on carrion (animals that have already died).  Pesticide poisoning has also affected the population.

Many zoos and other organizations have worked on breeding the Andean Condor and releasing them back into the wild. World Bird Sanctuary assisted with this program back in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.  Dorothy’s parents, Gryph and Laurel, were housed at the World Bird Sanctuary for many years as part of the species survival program.   During the 10 years they were with us, they produced 6 chicks, 5 of which were sent to Venezuela for release to the wild.  Laurel and Gryph are now back at the Cincinnati Zoo, which was their home before they came to us.


Dorothy sunning (photo: Cathy Spahn) 
Dorothy is a very friendly young avian ambassador and can be seen many days sunning herself in her enclosure.  When vultures sun they sit with their wings open to maximize the amount of solar rays absorbed, somewhat like a solar collector.  Ultimately the sun transforms oils on their feathers into vitamin D, so when Dorothy preens her feathers, she takes in this important vitamin.

Dorothy is a very curious condor and loves to play with the toys in her enclosure.  She considers the hose a very special toy when we are trying to clean her exhibit or give her fresh water.

As with all of our resident animals, Dorothy is available for adoption through the World Bird Sanctuary’s Adopt A Bird program. Adoption does not mean that you can take her home, but you receive many cool items through the mail and you will help to feed and care for her during the coming year. If you are a fan of Dorothy’s please head to our website and adopt her.

Submitted by Cathy Spahn, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Caring for Birds of Prey in Captivity


At the World Bird Sanctuary, you will find over 200 animals, most of which are birds of prey.  From eagles to hawks to owls, WBS is home to numerous different species of raptors.  Keeping birds in captivity poses a few challenges that WBS staff and volunteers must work through every day.

Every single one of World Bird Sanctuary’s raptors gets fed a natural meat diet each day.  Bald eagles may get fish, and Great Horned Owls may get rats for example.  This food needs to be prepared on a daily basis for our 200+ animals.

Some birds get a little extra care.  For instance, older birds coping with arthritis get an arthritis supplement on their food.  Some birds get extra calcium sprinkled on their meals for added benefit.  Rehab patients may require daily medications in their food.  By feeding frozen/thawed food, our birds (especially those with disabilities) do not have any risk of injury during feeding as they might in the wild.  They simply get their meals served up to them on a silver platter.

The raptors at WBS are fed a natural diet each day-Duncan the Wedge-tailed Eagle enjoys his lunch (photo: Paige Davis)

In the wild, birds of prey are constantly scraping their talons on trees, rocks, and prey.  In captivity, sometimes the birds need a trim to help keep their talons from overgrowing.  Just as our fingernails continuously grow, so do raptors’ talons.  The staff at WBS must monitor each bird and make sure their talons are well kept.  It is like giving a manicure, but to much sharper and more deadly “fingernails.”

Birds of prey have talons that grow continuously like our fingernails; they must be trimmed on a regular basis (photo: Paige Davis)

Just as the talons continuously grow, so do birds’ beaks!  Birds’ beaks also need a trim (known in falconry as “coping”) once in a while if they do not keep it worn down themselves.  This can be an artistic task; shaping a bird’s beak requires a good eye and a steady hand.  Luckily World Bird Sanctuary has a great team of people for such a task.
Pictured is a before and after of Ivory after a beak coping (photo: Paige Davis)

In addition to all of these tasks, WBS staff and volunteers must also clean up after each animal and maintain their exhibits.  Birds do not have a bladder to hold waste, which makes them lighter.  It also makes for a lot of poop!  And let me tell you, raptor poop is like cement when it dries.  Caretakers often use a scraper to remove the waste before deep cleaning.  It can be a very dirty job full of bird poop, but it makes for some happy, healthy feathered friends once the work is done.

Submitted by Paige Davis, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist

Monday, May 11, 2015

Bogart Courts Trina


Bogart the Eurasian Eagle Owl was hatched and raised at the World Bird Sanctuary.


Bogart the Eurasian Eagle Owl (photo: Gay Schroer)

Watch our YouTube video  as he displays his hunting prowess for Naturalist Trina Whitener by showing her his “prize” – a rat that he was given for his meal.  In the wild this is how he would court a female Eagle Owl.

As with all of our resident animals, Bogart is available for adoption in our Adopt A Bird Program.  To find out more about this program Click Here

Submitted by Gay Schroer, World Bird Sanctuary Volunteer/Photographer

Video by Trina Whitener, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist

Saturday, May 9, 2015

Spring is here!


 Spring is in the air, and with the coming of spring there is an eruption of baby birds in the wild. 

At the World Bird Sanctuary, our animal hospital receives about 400 patients a year.  These are mostly birds of prey such as eagles, owls, and hawks.  Sometimes we receive baby birds that are “rescued” that do not actually need our help, and this blog post will help you know when to help, and when to leave a baby bird alone.

There are a few questions to ask yourself when deciding whether or not to help a wild bird.  They are:
 
Is the bird injured? 
If you find any bird that is visibly injured or sick, this is a bird that needs help.  The presence of blood or flies around the animal is almost always a sign of injury.  You can help by contacting your local wildlife rehabilitator.


 This barred owl chick suffered from head trauma and was brought to a licensed wildlife rehabilitator.

Is the bird feathered?
If you find a baby bird that is naked (without feathers) or covered in fuzzy down feathers, this is a baby that should still be in the nest.  If you do not see any injuries, often you can place the chick back into its nest.  If you do not see the original nest, you can make a homemade nest yourself out of a basket or a container with holes in the bottom.  Makeshift nests should be lined with paper towels—not dry grass, pine needles, or other vegetation (these can hold moisture and cause the babies to become chilled).  You can then hang the nest in a nearby tree out of harm’s way, and place the chick inside.  Watch for the parents to come back and care for the chick. Most birds will look for a missing baby bird for at least 4 days.  If they do not visit the baby within a couple of hours, call a wildlife rehabilitator.


These robins have no feathers on their body, and they are not ready to be out of the nest.  They need to eat every half hour to keep growing strong.

If you find a baby bird that has its wing and tail feathers, this is a fledgling bird.  Baby birds will often leave the nest before they can fully fly.  The parents will care for these babies on the ground until they get the hang of flying.  Fledglings are vulnerable, and can be found hopping on the ground for days before they fly off.  If the chick is in danger from dogs, cats, or people, move the bird to a nearby bush for cover.  If possible, it is best to leave them where they are.  A baby’s best chance of survival is with its parents.


Pictured is a fledgling bird.  Even though it is a baby, notice the bird has feathers on its wings and tail.

Should I care for this baby bird myself?
No.  Caring for sick, injured, and abandoned wildlife requires extensive knowledge and skills.  It can also expose you to harmful bacteria and diseases.  The bird in need will have the best chance of survival in the care of a licensed wildlife rehabilitator.  Wildlife rehabilitators have all of the tools, medicine, and training necessary to give their patients the highest chance of survival.  Not only that, but it is illegal to possess wildlife without the correct permits.  By getting your bird to a wildlife rehabber as quickly as possible, it will have the greatest chance to be released back into the wild.

To find a local wildlife rehabber in your area, you can search the directory of rehabilitation centers by state at: http://wildliferehabber.org/

Submitted by Paige Davis, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist


Wednesday, May 6, 2015

Poet’s Corner: Sunshine


World Bird Sanctuary friend and poet Marge Biermann writes about Sunshine, the Short-eared Owl.  We named this bird Sunshine because Short-eared Owls are one of the few diurnal owls.


Sunshine

Need a little Sunshine to light up your day?
You could come and visit him….that’s one way.
This little one of just ounces under a pound,
Comes from Nebraska where he was found.

Hurt in a farm accident with a hay baling thing,
Now can’t ever again use his little right wing.
He will spend his days on the WBS display line,
Where visitors can meet this little ray of “Sunshine”.

Enjoy his beauty and his fierce determined stare
Oh, yes, we do have one secret about him to share.
Since an owl’s gender can be a bit vague,
We’ll just have to let you know if “he” lays an egg!


As with all of our animal residents, Sunshine is available for adoption in our Adopt A Bird program.  Click here if you would like to adopt Sunshine.

Submitted by Marge Biermann, World Bird Sanctuary Guest Author

Monday, May 4, 2015

A Brief History of Homing Pigeons



Rock Pigeons, or Rock Doves, are found all over downtown St. Louis and in most cities around the United States.


Pigeons perched (photo: the wikipedia files)

They are commonly considered a nuisance and even a potential health hazard in urban settings, but some of these birds have a distinguished history. Pigeons have been domesticated for thousands of years, and during this time have been used for multiple purposes, such as carrying messages.

Pigeons that were used to carry messages all had a common ability – the ability to find their way back to the same location even over long distances. Wild pigeons have this innate ability to a degree, but the pigeons we refer to as homing pigeons have been selectively bred for this trait.

Three thousand years ago, homing pigeons were carrying communications from one location to another. Of course, homing pigeons can only find their way back to one “home,” so pigeons were a one-way line of communication.


Pigeon in flight (photo: the wikipedia files)
 Homing pigeons were especially useful in times of war. During World War I and World War II pigeons were used to carry messages from the front lines. Pigeons were more difficult to intercept than radio transmissions. Even in the 21st century, homing pigeons have been used to carry messages by certain police departments in India; however, in 2002 the pigeon messenger system used by these departments was discontinued.
 

WBS Homing Pigeons have often been released at weddings (photo: Gay Schroer)

Although homing pigeons are not often used to carry messages anymore, they can still be used for a number of fun occasions. At World Bird Sanctuary we have our own small flock of homing pigeons. Available for weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, and other special events, our homing pigeon releases are a beautiful addition to any occasion.

For more information or to book a Homing Pigeon release at your event call the World Bird Sanctuary at 636-225-4390.

Submitted by JoHanna Burton, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist

Saturday, May 2, 2015

Whooo is THAT bird over there?



Visitors to the nature center at the World Bird Sanctuary often notice an unusual-looking owl in the weathering area.  The Naturalists at the nature  center often hear the question – “What is THAT bird over there?” – as the visitor points in amazement at our Mia, the Spectacled Owl.


Closeup of Mia (photo: Dawn Griffard)

Mia often gets much attention for her exotic markings.  She is a beautiful caramel and black color with a swooping beige “uni-brow” and has a seemingly extremely prideful gaze.

Mia is a beautiful representation of her species, which is indigenous to Mexico, Central America and the northern part of South America.


Mia's beautiful color and markings often draw "oohs" and "aahs" from visitors (photo: Dawn Griffard)

Spectacled Owls prefer dense tropical rainforests but can also be found in dry forests, treed savannah habitats and open areas with scattered trees. Like most raptors, Spectacled Owls are generally not social birds.  This owl is nocturnal. Because of deforestation of rainforests, the Spectacled Owl may be in trouble in the near future.

Spectacled Owls are not particular when it comes to their diet. They will eat just about anything that ventures into the area they are patrolling. To catch their prey, they will simply drop from the tree branch on which they are perched with a swooping pounce. These owls will dine on anything from caterpillars and beetles to frogs, mice, smaller birds, opossums and skunks.

Nesting season is generally from January to August. They are cavity nesters, as are many other species of owls.  The incubation of their eggs lasts about 36 days.

Fledglings are ready to fly at about six to eight weeks. These little ones will not acquire their full adult plumage for up to five years. When hatched, they are beige/white with black, heart-shaped faces.

Our Mia was hatched at the North Carolina Zoo and was hand-raised so that she would be easy to work with in our educational programs. In 1994, she became a part of the World Bird Sanctuary’s spring/summer program at Grant’s Farm in St. Louis and since then went to Tampa, Florida to be in the sanctuary’s show at Busch Gardens.  More recently she has also made appearances at the winter Owl Prowls here at WBS and has starred in many educational programs.  She has free flown in WBS’s bird show at Stone Zoo in Boston.


Mia sunning in the weathering area (photo Dawn Griffard)

Now retired from free flying in shows, Mia still engages crowds by appearing in our programs as a glove-handled bird. She enjoys playing with sticks and leaves in the weathering area and can be a great conversationalist as she chatters with her “pup-pup-pup-pup-pup” and warbling hoot. Mia is now 22 years old, and according to those who have known her for a good part of her life, she only gets sweeter with age.

Mia is available for adoption through our Adopt-A-Bird program! For a mere $100.00, you can become Mia’s “adoptive family”, helping to care for her for an entire year.  You will also receive the following:
  • Certificate of Adoption with a full color photograph
  • World Bird Sanctuary sponsorship for one year
  • One year’s subscription to our newsletter – the Mews News – printed three times per year
  • Natural history and life history of your special adopted animal
  • Plush bird toy
  • Reusable WBS shopping bag
  • 10% discount on all World Bird Sanctuary merchandise in our gift shop
  • 10% discount on all public programs offered at World Bird Sanctuary, such as Owl Prowls, Nature Hikes, etc.
  • Visiting privileges and photo opportunities with the special new member of your family (just call ahead first to make sure she will be here).

We hope that you will consider adopting our Mia and become a part of the World Bird Sanctuary family!

 
Submitted by Dawn Griffard, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Bill Size and Shape


One of my favorite things to do, during migration season is to identify birds.  Many aspects of bird watching combine to make this the world’s number one hobby; the hunt through the binoculars for that wind-blown leaf you thought was a bird;  the sudden realization that you’re facing the wrong direction in a valley; following a song for an entire afternoon just to get a glimpse of that fellow who sings his heart out. 

When I do finally see that special bird, I have to take quick mental notes on size, color, foot type (if I see a bird feeding), bill type, and behaviors.  Although behavior is a really big part of identification, I enjoy using bill type as a guide for those really tough ones.  This is especially true when you consider that many species depend mostly on a specific food for survival.  Whether it feeds on seeds, insects, nectar, or other animals, its bill will be specially adapted for feeding.


Members of the parrot family have beaks that are designed for gripping and cracking seeds and nuts.  (photo: Leigh French)

Seedeaters need to have a bill that is strong enough to crack through the thick hard hulls to get to the meaty fruit inside.  Their bills are often thick and arrow shaped having hard ridges to aide in grip, like a wrench.  Parrots are a great example of this.  Their bills are very thick and their upper mandible has serrations on its underside, out near the tip, so that they can grip nuts and crack them.  Also, cardinals have a thick, strong bill for smaller seeds.

Shorebirds are a wonderful example of diversity within a habitat.  Gulls and terns have bills adapted for fishing.  They dive into the water from the air or from floating on the water. 


Roseate Spoonbills have a bill shaped for shoveling around in the lake bottom debris for their food. (photo: Gay Schroer)

Some Ducks and wading birds have a specialized bill for shoveling around in the water for invertebrates. 


This Scarlet Ibis has a very specialized beak for probing for food in soft mud and under plants (photo: Gay Schroer)

Birds like the sandpipers, oystercatchers, godwits, turnstones, and plovers have bills that are shaped for finding invertebrates that have tunneled into the sand or mud.  Their bill is sort of shaped like the prey for which they forage. 

Herons and egrets use their bill as a spear.


This Great Blue Heron uses his bill as a spear and then swallows the fish whole (photo: Gay Schroer

…whereas this Yellow-crowned Night Heron snatches his preferred diet of crayfish with his long pointed bill


…and then turns it, pinchers side out, and crushes it with the powerful upper portion of his bill before swallowing it

Moving away from the shore, there are other smaller birds that flit about after tiny gnats and flies.  These birds have small bills and are a bit more difficult to identify because they are usually small and fast.  These are typically gnatcatchers and flycatchers. 

Prothonotary Warblers have small thin bills for catching insects and snails which they pry out of their hiding places

Ruby-crowned Kinglets are such tiny little birds and they are the most difficult for me to see clearly.  That’s when I listen to any calls or songs they may be making.  Woodpeckers have a bill that is like a chisel.  They bang away at trees looking for insects crawling under the bark and inside the wood.

Finally, I think crows and ravens are a good transition into birds of prey.  They are very adept and intelligent.  They hammer and poke and tear and pull their food.

Meat eaters are probably more diverse because they may feed on certain animals based on their habitat.  Owls, hawks, and eagles have bills that are great for tearing meat.

The Eurasian Eagle Owl has a beak that is supremely well adapted for tearing meat (photo: Gay Schroer)

So, when you are having trouble narrowing down that bird species, perhaps you can get a good look at the bill to figure out a bit about it.

The next time you visit the World Bird Sanctuary, pay particular attention to the different beak shapes that you will see on our display birds and the birds that visit our bird feeders.  Try to guess what each bird’s preferred food would be.

Submitted by W. Leigh French, World Bird Sanctuary Naturalist